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Neuroscience. 2007 Apr 14;145(4):1201-12. Epub 2006 Nov 13.

Different organization of base excision repair of uracil in DNA in nuclei and mitochondria and selective upregulation of mitochondrial uracil-DNA glycosylase after oxidative stress.

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  • 1Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7006 Trondheim, Norway.

Abstract

Oxidative stress in the brain may cause neuro-degeneration, possibly due to DNA damage. Oxidative base lesions in DNA are mainly repaired by base excision repair (BER). The DNA glycosylases Nei-like DNA glycosylase 1 (NEIL1), Nei-like DNA glycosylase 2 (NEIL2), mitochondrial uracil-DNA glycosylase 1 (UNG1), nuclear uracil-DNA glycosylase 2 (UNG2) and endonuclease III-like 1 protein (NTH1) collectively remove most oxidized pyrimidines, while 8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase 1 (OGG1) removes oxidized purines. Although uracil is the main substrate of uracil-DNA glycosylases UNG1 and UNG2, these proteins also remove the oxidized cytosine derivatives isodialuric acid, alloxan and 5-hydroxyuracil. UNG1 and UNG2 have identical catalytic domain, but different N-terminal regions required for subcellular sorting. We demonstrate that mRNA for UNG1, but not UNG2, is increased after hydrogen peroxide, indicating regulatory effects of oxidative stress on mitochondrial BER. To examine the overall organization of uracil-BER in nuclei and mitochondria, we constructed cell lines expressing EYFP (enhanced yellow fluorescent protein) fused to UNG1 or UNG2. These were used to investigate the possible presence of multi-protein BER complexes in nuclei and mitochondria. Extracts from nuclei and mitochondria were both proficient in complete uracil-BER in vitro. BER assays with immunoprecipitates demonstrated that UNG2-EYFP, but not UNG1-EYFP, formed complexes that carried out complete BER. Although apurinic/apyrimidinic site endonuclease 1 (APE1) is highly enriched in nuclei relative to mitochondria, it was apparently the major AP-endonuclease required for BER in both organelles. APE2 is enriched in mitochondria, but its possible role in BER remains uncertain. These results demonstrate that nuclear and mitochondrial BER processes are differently organized. Furthermore, the upregulation of mRNA for mitochondrial UNG1 after oxidative stress indicates that it may have an important role in repair of oxidized pyrimidines.

PMID:
17101234
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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