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Crit Rev Biotechnol. 2006 Oct-Dec;26(4):237-59.

Bio-microarray fabrication techniques--a review.

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  • 1Institute for Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.


Microarrays with biomolecules (e.g., DNA and proteins), cells, and tissues immobilized on solid substrates are important tools for biological research, including genomics, proteomics, and cell analysis. In this paper, the current state of microarray fabrication is reviewed. According to spot formation techniques, methods are categorized as "contact printing" and "non-contact printing." Contact printing is a widely used technology, comprising methods such as contact pin printing and microstamping. These methods have many advantages, including reproducibility of printed spots and facile maintenance, as well as drawbacks, including low-throughput fabrication of arrays. Non-contact printing techniques are newer and more varied, comprising photochemistry-based methods, laser writing, electrospray deposition, and inkjet technologies. These technologies emerged from other applications and have the potential to increase microarray fabrication throughput; however, there are several challenges in applying them to microarray fabrication, including interference from satellite drops and biomolecule denaturization.

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