*Input Provided by the Rod Bipolar Pathway Evokes Spikes With High Temporal Precision.* **A**_{1}, Light stimulus and raster plots of spike times during 15 consecutive trials for 25% (top) and 50% (middle) contrast stimuli producing 2.5 Rh*/Rod/Sec and 50% contrast stimuli producing 12.5 Rh*/Rod/Sec (bottom). Open circles at the base of each raster plot identify the bursts selected for analysis. **A**_{2}, Expanded view of spike times in one burst across stimulus conditions. Burst time noted by arrow in A_{1}. **A**_{3}, Average standard deviation of the first spike time evoked by different mean and/or contrast stimuli in Off transient RGCs. Lines connect data recorded in the same cell. The average number of spikes in bursts selected for analysis was 10.1 ± 0.2 , 8.9 ± 0.2, and 5.7 ± 0.2 in On, OffT, and OffS cells, respectively. The mean interspike interval of these spikes was 3.78 ± 0.04 ms , 4.54 ± 0.13 ms, and 4.51 ± 0.13 ms, respectively. **B**, Two operations in the spike distance metric enable a spike in one spike train to be paired with a spike in another spike train. The first operation (top) shifts (--->) a spike in one spike train until it occurs at the same time as a spike in the other train, incurring a distance of (Δt *cost). The second operation (bottom) removes (Ø) a spike from one spike train and adds (↓) a spike at the appropriate time, incurring a distance of 2. **C**_{1}, When the cost of shifting spikes in time is low (0.02; max Δt shift = 100 ms), the total spike distance is minimized when all spikes are paired via shifting (despite the large Δt between some paired spikes). **C**_{2}, When the cost of shifting spikes in time is high (0.2; max Δt shift = 10 ms), the spike distance is minimized by pairing spikes in one train with their nearest neighbor in the other spike train (in spite of the distance associated with removing/adding a spike). Note that the number of spikes paired via the shifting operation decreases as the cost of shifting spikes in time increases, and the Δt values for spikes paired via the shifting operation would not change if the distance associated with removing/replacing a spike was different. **D**, Cumulative probability distribution of Δt values for On (black), Off T (blue), and Off S (green) cells computed with cost = 0.025 (max Δt shift = 80 ms). The stimulus mean and contrast (∼2.5 Rh*/Rod/Sec, 50%) was identical across cell types. Top left inset; Relationship between median calculated Δt and the range over which spikes in one train could be shifted to match a spike in another train. The spike pairing algorithim removes/replaces a spike when Δt *cost ≥ 2; thus max Δt shift = 2/cost. Bottom right inset; mean standard deviation of the first spike time in select bursts in the same cells.

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