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J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006 Nov;118(5):985-98. Epub 2006 Sep 18.

Pharmacologic rationale for treating allergic and nonallergic rhinitis.

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  • 1Allergy and Asthma Medical Group and Research Center and the University of California San Diego School of Medicine, San Diego, CA 92123, USA. <>


Allergic rhinitis (AR) and perennial nonallergic rhinitis (PNAR) represent conditions affecting millions of individuals across the world. Although the diagnosis of AR might be presumptively based on the types of symptoms and the history of allergen triggers, confirmation requires documentation of specific IgE reactivity. In contrast, PNAR is a condition with similar symptomatology but in which the patient has no identifiable specific allergic sensitivities. This review presents the diverse options of currently available pharmacologic agents for the treatment of AR and PNAR, including intranasal corticosteroids, H1-antihistamines, decongestants, cromolyn sodium, antileukotrienes, anticholinergics, capsaicin, anti-IgE, and intranasal saline. Furthermore, appropriate stepped-up, stepped-down pharmacotherapeutic algorithms are described for the various forms of rhinitis.

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