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Trends Biochem Sci. 2006 Dec;31(12):680-6. Epub 2006 Nov 2.

Epac proteins: multi-purpose cAMP targets.

Author information

  • 1Department of Physiological Chemistry and Centre for Biomedical Genetics, University Medical Center Utrecht, Universiteitsweg 100, 3584 CG Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Erratum in

  • Trends Biochem Sci. 2007 Jan;32(1):5.


Epac1 and Epac2 are cAMP-dependent guanine-nucleotide-exchange factors for the small GTPases Rap1 and Rap2, and are known to be important mediators of cAMP signaling. The recent determination of the crystal structure of Epac2 has indicated a mechanism for the activation of the multi-domain Epac proteins. In addition, these proteins have been implicated in various cellular processes such as integrin-mediated cell adhesion and cell-cell junction formation, the control of insulin secretion and neurotransmitter release. In most of these processes, cAMP signaling through protein kinase A (PKA) is also involved, stressing the interconnectivity between Epac- and PKA-mediated signaling.

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