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Expert Rev Neurother. 2006 Oct;6(10):1555-67.

Treatment of neuropsychiatric conditions associated with multiple sclerosis.

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  • 1University of Toronto, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, 2075 Bayview, Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, M4N 3M5, Canada.


This article reviews the treatment of behavioral disturbances associated with multiple sclerosis. Pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatment data, when available, are presented for five discrete conditions: major depression, bipolar affective disorder, anxiety, psychosis, pseudobulbar affect and cognitive dysfunction. Despite the paucity of empirical treatment data that characterizes all of these conditions, with the exception of pseudobulbar affect, the message from open-label trials and anecdotal experience is that therapy is often successful, leading to improvements in quality of life for patients. Thus, all health professionals involved in the care of multiple sclerosis patients should have a good working knowledge of the neurotherapeutics of multiple sclerosis-related behavioral disorders.

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