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J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2007 May;27(5):909-18. Epub 2006 Nov 1.

Transport pathways for clearance of human Alzheimer's amyloid beta-peptide and apolipoproteins E and J in the mouse central nervous system.

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  • 1Frank P Smith Laboratory for Neuroscience and Neurosurgical Research, Department of Neurosurgery, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York 14642, USA.


Amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) clearance from the central nervous system (CNS) maintains its low levels in brain. In Alzheimer's disease, Abeta accumulates in brain possibly because of its faulty CNS clearance and a deficient efflux across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). By using human-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, we measured a rapid 30 mins efflux at the BBB and transport via the interstitial fluid (ISF) bulk flow of human-unlabeled Abeta and of Abeta transport proteins, apolipoprotein E (apoE) and apoJ in mice. We show (i) Abeta40 is cleared rapidly across the BBB via low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP)1 at a rate of 0.21 pmol/min g ISF or 6-fold faster than via the ISF flow; (ii) Abeta42 is removed across the BBB at a rate 1.9-fold slower compared with Abeta40; (iii) apoE, lipid-poor isoform 3, is cleared slowly via the ISF flow and across the BBB (0.03-0.04 pmol/min g ISF), and after lipidation its transport at the BBB becomes barely detectable within 30 mins; (iv) apoJ is eliminated rapidly across the BBB (0.16 pmol/min g ISF) via LRP2. Clearance rates of unlabeled and corresponding 125I-labeled Abeta and apolipoproteins were almost identical, but could not be measured at low physiologic levels by mass spectrometry. Amyloid beta-peptide 40 binding to apoE3 reduced its efflux rate at the BBB by 5.7-fold, whereas Abeta42 binding to apoJ enhanced Abeta42 BBB clearance rate by 83%. Thus, Abeta, apoE, and apoJ are cleared from brain by different transport pathways, and apoE and apoJ may critically modify Abeta clearance at the BBB.

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