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J Am Chem Soc. 2006 Nov 1;128(43):14081-92.

An organic white light-emitting fluorophore.

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  • 1Department of Chemistry, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA.

Erratum in

  • J Am Chem Soc. 2007 Jan 31;129(4):1008.


The synthesis of new benzo[a]- and [b]xanthene dye frameworks is described. A unique benzo[a]xanthene, seminaphtho[a]fluorone (SNAFR-1), is studied in a variety of media. The optimization of solution parameters and excitation wavelengths allows SNAFR-1 to display red, green, and blue emission bands of approximately equal intensities and also to produce white light. Ratiometric red (anion) and green (neutral) emissions are observed upon varying solution pH. A pH-independent violet-blue emission band is due to the addition of nucleophiles to the benzylic carbon of SNAFR-1.

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