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J Biol Chem. 2006 Dec 15;281(50):38599-608. Epub 2006 Oct 17.

Identification of a novel phosphorylation site in protein phosphatase inhibitor-1 as a negative regulator of cardiac function.

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  • 1Department of Pharmacology and Cell Biophysics, College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, 231 Albert Sabin Way, Cincinnati, OH 45267, USA.


Human and experimental heart failure is characterized by increases in type-1 protein phosphatase activity, which may be partially attributed to inactivation of its endogenous regulator, protein phosphatase inhibitor-1. Inhibitor-1 represents a nodal integrator of two major second messenger pathways, adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) and calcium, which mediate its phosphorylation at threonine 35 and serine 67, respectively. Here, using recombinant inhibitor-1 wild-type and mutated proteins, we identified a novel phosphorylation site in inhibitor-1, threonine 75. This phosphoamino acid was phosphorylated in vitro by protein kinase Calpha independently and to the same extent as serine 67, the previous protein kinase Calpha-identified site. Generation of specific antibodies for the phosphorylated and dephosphorylated threonine 75 revealed that this site is phosphorylated in rat and dog hearts. Adenoviral-mediated expression of the constitutively phosphorylated threonine 75 inhibitor-1 in isolated myocytes was associated with specific stimulation of type-1 protein phosphatase activity and marked inhibition of the sarcoplasmic calcium pump affinity for calcium, resulting in depressed contractility. Thus, phosphorylation of inhibitor-1 at threonine 75 represents a new mechanism of cardiac contractility regulation, partially through the alteration of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium transport activity.

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