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Uirusu. 2006 Jun;56(1):1-8.

[Innate immune recognition of viral infection].

[Article in Japanese]

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  • 1Department of Host defense, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Japan.


Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are key molecules of the innate immune systems, which detect conserved structures found in a broad range of pathogens and triggers innate immune responses. A subset of TLRs recognize viral components and induce antiviral responses by producing type I interferons. Whereas TLR2 and TLR4 recognize viral components at the cell surface, TLR3, TLR7, TLR8 and TLR9 are exclusively expressed in endosomal compartments. After phagocytes internalize viruses or virus-infected apoptotic cells, viral nucleic acids are released in phagolysosomes and are recognized by these TLRs. Recent reports have shown that hosts also have a mechanism to detect replicating viruses in the cytoplasm in a TLR-independent manner. In this review, we focus on the viral recognition by innate immunity and the signaling pathways.

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