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Am J Psychiatry. 2006 Oct;163(10):1777-83; quiz 1860.

Posttraumatic stress disorder and depression in battle-injured soldiers.

Author information

  • 1Department of Psychiatry, B-3074, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Rd., Bethesda, MD 20814, USA. tgrieger@usuhs.mil

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

This study examined rates, predictors, and course of probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among seriously injured soldiers during and following hospitalization.

METHOD:

The patients were 613 U.S. soldiers hospitalized following serious combat injury. Standardized screening instruments were administered 1, 4, and 7 months following injury; 243 soldiers completed all three assessments. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of risk factors were performed. PTSD was assessed with the PTSD Checklist; depression was assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire. Combat exposure, deployment length, and severity of physical problems were also assessed.

RESULTS:

At 1 month, 4.2% of the soldiers had probable PTSD and 4.4% had depression; at 4 months, 12.2% had PTSD and 8.9% had depression; at 7 months, 12.0% had PTSD and 9.3% had depression. In the longitudinal cohort, 78.8% of those positive for PTSD or depression at 7 months screened negative for both conditions at 1 month. High levels of physical problems at 1 month were significantly predictive of PTSD (odds ratio=9.1) and depression at 7 months (odds ratio=5.7) when the analysis controlled for demographic variables, combat exposure, and duration of deployment. Physical problem severity at 1 month was also associated with PTSD and depression severity at 7 months after control for 1-month PTSD and depression severity, demographic variables, combat exposure, and deployment length.

CONCLUSIONS:

Early severity of physical problems was strongly associated with later PTSD or depression. The majority of soldiers with PTSD or depression at 7 months did not meet criteria for either condition at 1 month.

PMID:
17012689
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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