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Chem Biol Interact. 2007 Mar 20;166(1-3):44-51. Epub 2006 Aug 22.

Spatial and temporal trend evaluation of ambient concentrations of 1,3-butadiene and chloroprene in Texas.

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  • 1Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, Toxicology Section, Austin, TX 78711-3087, USA.


This paper provides information on 1,3-butadiene (BD) and chloroprene as atmospheric pollutants in Texas and reviews available emission estimates and monitoring data. Ambient BD concentrations in most areas of Texas are predominantly influenced by on-road and off-road vehicular emissions or biomass burning, since BD is a product of combustion. However, large industrial point sources of BD emissions in Texas locally influence ambient concentrations. Total industrial BD emissions to the atmosphere in Texas for 2003 were estimated at 695 tonnes per year (TPY), approximately 70% of the total reported national industrial BD air emissions. Since 1998, there have not been any large industrial sources of chloroprene emissions in Texas, and total industrial chloroprene emissions for 2003 was estimated at only 0.09 TPY. Chloroprene was never detected at air monitoring sites. In 2003, the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) monitored BD ambient air concentrations at 57 sites, some of which have been operational since 1992. These air monitors provide information on ambient BD concentrations in Texas and allow spatial and temporal trend evaluation. In 2003, annual average concentrations at monitoring sites in Texas ranged from less than the reporting limit of 0.01 to 3.2 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) with an overall average of 0.2 ppbv. This overall average is reduced to 0.1 ppbv if BD data from monitoring sites in Port Neches and Milby Park in Houston, which are located downwind of significant point sources of BD, are excluded. Ambient air monitoring has been conducted in Port Neches and in Milby Park in Houston since 1996 and 1999, respectively. At the Port Neches monitor, trend evaluation indicates that ambient concentrations of BD have declined since 1996 due to cooperative agreements with industries emitting BD. Annual average BD concentrations at the Port Neches monitor decreased from 8.3ppbv in 1996 to 1.3 ppbv in 2003, giving an 8-year average of 3.8 ppbv. Annual average BD concentrations at the Milby Park monitor varied between 2.1 and 4.4 ppbv from 1999 through 2003, giving a 5-year average of 3.1 ppbv. The results of cancer cluster studies based on Cancer Registry 1995-2001 incidence data and 1993-2002 mortality data conducted by the Texas Department of State Health Services for zip codes 77017/77012 (Houston) and 77651 (Port Neches) will be presented.

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