Display Settings:


Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Neurology. 2006 Sep 26;67(6):940-3.

Severe tongue protrusion dystonia: clinical syndromes and possible treatment.

Author information

  • 1Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology, UCL, London WC1N 3BG, UK.


We describe intermittent or sustained severe involuntary tongue protrusion in patients with a dystonic syndrome. Speech, swallowing, and breathing difficulties can be severe enough to be life threatening. Causes include neuroacanthocytosis, pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, and postanoxic and tardive dystonia. The pathophysiology of intermittent severe tongue protrusion remains unknown. Tongue protrusion dystonia is often unresponsive to oral drugs but may benefit from botulinum toxin injections into the genioglossus muscle. Bilateral deep brain pallidal stimulation was beneficial in two cases.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk