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J Anim Sci. 1990 Sep;68(9):2916-29.

Influence of dietary forage and feed intake on carbohydrase activities and small intestinal morphology of calves.

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  • 1Dept. of Anim. Sci. and Ind., Kansas State University, Manhattan 66506.

Abstract

Twenty (12 Holstein, 8 Longhorn cross) calves (198 kg and 7 mo old) were used in a randomized complete block design to evaluate the effects of dietary forage concentration and feed intake on carbohydrase activities and small intestinal (SI) morphology. Calves were individually fed 90% forage (alfalfa) or a 90% concentrate (50% sorghum: 50% wheat) diet at either one or two times NEm for 140 d and slaughtered; tissues and small intestinal digesta were collected. Increased feed intake increased (P less than .05) pancreatic weight, alpha-amylase and glucoamylase activities in the pancreas, SI length and SI digesta weight. Forage-fed calves gained faster (P less than .01) and had greater (P less than .05) pancreatic protein concentrations, alpha-amylase and glucoamylase activities in the pancreas and greater SI digesta alpha-amylase activities than grain-fed calves did. Increased feed intake increased (P less than .01) mucosal weight/cm small intestine only in forage-fed calves and increased (P less than .05) SI surface/volume only in grain-fed calves. Mucosal weight was greatest (P less than .05) at the terminal ileum, surface/volume was greatest (P less than .05) in the duodenum, and mucosal protein concentration was highest (P less than .05) in the SI mid-section. Mucosal lactase was higher (P less than .05) in proximal segments, whereas mucosal isomaltase was higher in middle and distal segments of the small intestine. For mucosal maltase activity, there was a feed intake x SI sampling site interaction (P less than .05) and for trehalase, a diet x feed intake x SI sampling site interaction (P less than .05). The SI distribution patterns of maltase and isomaltase were similar, as were those of trehalase and lactase. The alpha-amylase activity in the pancreas and SI morphology were influenced greatly by diet composition and feed intake by calves.

PMID:
1698758
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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