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Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Feb;292(2):E400-7. Epub 2006 Sep 19.

Effects of 3-phosphoglycerate and other metabolites on the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase by LKB1-STRAD-MO25.

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  • 1Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah 84602, USA.


Skeletal muscle contraction results in the phosphorylation and activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) by an upstream kinase (AMPKK). The LKB1-STE-related adaptor (STRAD)-mouse protein 25 (MO25) complex is the major AMPKK in skeletal muscle; however, LKB1-STRAD-MO25 activity is not increased by muscle contraction. This relationship suggests that phosphorylation of AMPK by LKB1-STRAD-MO25 during skeletal muscle contraction may be regulated by allosteric mechanisms. In this study, we tested an array of metabolites including, glucose 6-phosphate, fructose 6-phosphate, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, 3-phosphoglycerate (3-PG), glucose 1-phosphate, glucose 1,6-bisphosphate, ADP, carnitine, acetylcarnitine, IMP, inosine, and ammonia for allosteric regulation. ADP inhibited both AMPK and LKB1-STRAD-MO25 actions, but probably is not important physiologically because of the low free ADP inside the muscle fiber. We found that 3-PG stimulated LKB1-STRAD-MO25 activity and allowed for increased AMPK phosphorylation. 3-PG did not stimulate LKB1-STRAD-MO25 activity toward the peptide substrate LKB1tide. These results have identified 3-PG as an AMPK-specific regulator of AMPK phosphorylation and activation by LKB1-STRAD-MO25.

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