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Am J Vet Res. 1975 Sep;36(9):1391-6.

Mammary cancer in the dog: a study of 120 cases.


Of the 120 cases of mammary cancer occurring in 117 female dogs (15 spayed), 2 male dogs, and 1 dog of undetermined sex, 107 (nearly 90%) were observed in dogs 8 to 15 years old. Mammary tumors occurred in nearly 14% of 875 female dogs with neoplasms. Nearly 60% of 128 neoplasms were located in the 4th and 5th mammary glands. Of the 128 cancers in these 120 dogs, 85 were classified as duct carcinoma, 38 as lobular carcinoma, 3 as malignant mixed tumor, and 2 as duct and lobular carcinomas. Most duct carcinomas originated in the epithelial cells of ducts at all levels, and a few arose in previously benign duct papillomas. The lobular carcinomas arose in alveoli and developed into progressively larger lobules. A negative factor in the development of mammary cancer is ovariectomy before or shortly after the first estrous cycle in the dog and before the age of 40 in women. In both dog and man, aging is a positive factor in the development of mammary cancer. In women, other positive factors are nulliparity and inheritance; e.g., a high rate of breast cancer in close female relatives of Jewish extraction. An epidemiologic study of breast cancer in man and dog in high-risk countries(e.g., United States) and low-risk countries (e.g., Japan) is indicated.

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