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Fertil Steril. 2006 Oct;86(4 Suppl):1088-96. Epub 2006 Sep 7.

Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase (PTGS1 and PTGS2) expression and prostaglandin production by normal monkey ovarian surface epithelium.

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  • 1The Jones Institute for Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, Virginia, USA.



To determine whether hCG regulates the expression of prostaglandin (PG) synthesis enzymes and the production of PGs by normal monkey ovarian surface epithelium (OSE).


Experimental animal study.


Research laboratory.


Adult cynomolgus macaques.


Monkeys received exogenous gonadotropins to stimulate multiple follicular development. Ovarian surface epithelium cells and whole ovaries were obtained before (0 hours) and 36 hours after an ovulatory dose of hCG.


Ovarian surface epithelium expression of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 1 (PTGS1) and PTGS2 proteins was determined by immunocytochemistry. Prostaglandin synthesis enzyme messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were determined by RT-PCR. Prostaglandin E2 and PGF2alpha production was assessed by enzyme immunoassays.


Ovarian surface epithelium maintained in long-term culture expressed mRNA and protein for PTGS1 and PTGS2 (n = 6); inhibition of PTGS1, but not PTGS2, reduced PGE2 synthesis (n = 3). Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 1 was present in OSE of ovarian tissue sections obtained 0 (n = 4) and 36 (n = 3) hours after hCG; PTGS2 was not detected. Ovarian surface epithelium collected 0 (n = 3) and 36 (n = 4) hours after hCG expressed mRNAs for PTGS1, PTGS2, and three PGE synthases; the ratio of PTGS2 to PTGS1 increased in response to hCG exposure.


Monkey OSE expresses mRNA for PTGS1, PTGS2, and all PGE synthases and produces PGE2 both before and 36 hours after hCG. Detection of PTGS1, but not PTGS2, protein in OSE in vivo supports the hypothesis that PTGS1 is the enzyme responsible for PGE2 production by primate OSE in vivo.

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