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J Biol Chem. 2006 Nov 3;281(44):33087-94. Epub 2006 Sep 1.

Structural determinants for phosphatidic acid regulation of phospholipase C-beta1.

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  • 1Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida 33101, USA.


Signaling from G protein-coupled receptors to phospholipase C-beta (PLC-beta) is regulated by coordinate interactions among multiple intracellular signaling molecules. Phosphatidic acid (PA), a signaling phospholipid, binds to and stimulates PLC-beta(1) through a mechanism that requires the PLC-beta(1) C-terminal domain. PA also modulates Galpha(q) stimulation of PLC-beta(1). These data suggest that PA may have a key role in the regulation of PLC-beta(1) signaling in cells. The present studies addressed the structural requirements and the mechanism for PA regulation of PLC-beta(1). We used a combination of enzymatic assays, PA-binding assays, and circular dichroism spectroscopy to evaluate the interaction of PA with wild-type and mutant PLC-beta(1) proteins and with fragments of the Galpha(q) binding domain. The results identify a region that includes the alphaA helix and flexible loop of the Galpha(q)-binding domain as necessary for PA regulation. A mutant PLC-beta(1) with multiple alanine/glycine replacements for residues (944)LIKEHTTKYNEIQN(957) was markedly impaired in PA regulation. The high affinity and low affinity component of PA stimulation was reduced 70% and PA binding was reduced 45% in this mutant. Relative PLC stimulation by PA increased with PLC-beta(1) concentration in a manner suggesting cooperative binding to PA. Similar concentration dependence was observed in the PLC-beta(1) mutant. These data are consistent with a model for PA regulation of PLC-beta(1) that involves cooperative interactions, probably PLC homodimerization, that require the flexible loop region, as is consistent with the dimeric structure of the Galpha(q)-binding domain. PA regulation of PLC-beta(1) requires unique residues that are not required for Galpha(q) stimulation or GTPase-activating protein activity.

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