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Virology. 2006 Oct 10;354(1):48-57. Epub 2006 Aug 30.

A fused gene of nucleoprotein (NP) and herpes simplex virus genes (VP22) induces highly protective immunity against different subtypes of influenza virus.

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  • 1Department of Molecular Biodefense Research, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-9 Fukuura, Yokohama 236-0004, Japan.


We evaluated the immunogenicity and protective activity of plasmid DNA vaccines encoding the influenza virus NP gene (pNP) alone or in combination with the herpes simplex virus type 1 protein 22 gene (pVP22). Optimal immune responses were observed in BALB/c mice immunized with the combination of pVP22 plus pNP, as assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) and intracellular cytokine staining (ICCS). These mice also showed maximal resistance following challenge with the A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) and A/Udron/72 (H3N2) strains of influenza virus. The susceptibility of immunized mice to virus infection was significantly increased following depletion of either CD4+ or CD8+ T cells. These results indicate that a plasmid DNA vaccine encoding pVP22 plus NP induces a high level of cross-protective immunity against influenza virus subtypes.

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