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J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Sep 6;54(18):6645-53.

Amaranthus cruentus flour edible films: influence of stearic acid addition, plasticizer concentration, and emulsion stirring speed on water vapor permeability and mechanical properties.

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  • 1Department of Food Engineering, FEA-UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6121, Campinas, SP 13081-970, Brazil.


Films forming solutions composed of Amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus) flour (4.0 g/100 mL), stearic acid (5-15 g/100 g of flour), and glycerol (25-35 g/100 g of flour) were prepared by an emulsification process, with varying stirring speed values (6640-13360 rpm). The influence of these parameters (stearic acid and glycerol concentrations and stirring speed) on the water vapor barrier and mechanical properties of films was evaluated using the response surface methodology (RSM). Other characterizations, including microstructure, water solubility, and oxygen permeability, were performed in optimized films. According to statistical analysis results, the optimized conditions corresponded to 10 g of stearic acid/100 g of flour, 26 g of glycerol/100 g of flour, and a stirring speed of 12 000 rpm. The films produced under these conditions exhibited superior mechanical properties (2.5 N puncture force, 2.6 MPa tensile strength, and 148% elongation at break) in comparison to those of other protein and polysaccharide composite films, low solubility (15.2%), and optimal barrier properties (WVP of 8.9 x 10(- 11) g m(- 1) s(- 1) Pa(- 1) and oxygen permeability of 2.36 x 10(- 13) cm3 m(-1) s(-1) Pa(-1)).

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