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Biochem Cell Biol. 2006 Aug;84(4):559-67.

GAGA protein: a multi-faceted transcription factor.

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  • 1Department of Biological Sciences, Marshall University, 1 John Marshall Drive, Huntington, WV, 25755, USA.


The transition from transcription activation to repression is regulated at multiple levels by the DNA sequence and DNA modification to its compaction through chromatin packaging. The GAGA factor (GAF) is one of a few transcription factors that can regulate gene expression at multiple levels. It displays both activator/antirepressor and repressor activity, depending on its target genomic location. The GAF-mediated modulation of expression appears to be intimately linked with modifications of the chromatin structure. The GAF can associate with highly compacted heterochromatin, contributing to gene repression, or participate in nucleosome remodeling to activate specific genes. In this review, we are attempting to elucidate the contribution(s) of the various domains of the GAF to the recruitment of its functional partners, leading to seemingly opposite functions. We surveyed the current scientific literature for evidence of GAF involvement in regulatory events associated with changes of chromatin composition or conformation.

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