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Biol Psychiatry. 2006 Oct 1;60(7):671-6. Epub 2006 Aug 24.

Early family environment, current adversity, the serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism, and depressive symptomatology.

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  • 1Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, 90095, USA.



Mixed evidence has suggested that homozygous carriers of the short allele (s/s) of the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) may be at increased risk for depression, if they have also been exposed to early or current adversity/stress. We address this debate by examining the relation of a stressful early family environment, recent adversity/stress, and the 5-HTTLPR to depressive symptomatology in a normal sample.


A nonclinical sample of 118 young adult men and women completed assessments of early family environment, recent stressful events, psychosocial resources, and psychological distress, including depressive symptomatology. The 5-HTTLPR was genotyped using a standard protocol with DNA extracted from oral fluid.


A stressful early family environment was significantly related to depressive symptomatology. In addition, gene-by-environment (GxE) interactions were observed between the 5-HTTLPR and both early family environment and current adversity/stress. Individuals homozygous for the short allele had greater depressive symptomatology if they had experienced early or recent adversity but significantly less depressive symptomatology if they reported a supportive early environment or recent positive experiences, compared with participants with the s/l or l/l genotype.


Early or current environment, in conjunction with the serotonin transporter polymorphism, predicts depressive symptomatology.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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