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J Trauma Stress. 2006 Aug;19(4):527-40.

Assessing war trauma in refugees: properties of the Comprehensive Trauma Inventory-104.

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  • 1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Louisville, School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202, USA.


In this article, the authors describe the properties of the Comprehensive Trauma Inventory-104 (CTI-104), developed and designed empirically to improve assessment of traumatic war-related events. The mean number of events reported by 252 community dwelling Kurdish and Vietnamese refugees was 32 (SD=27) out of the 104 items. Internal and test-retest reliability was excellent, and the validity of the CTI-104 as a measure of war trauma was supported by its high correlation with standard measures of known outcomes of trauma. The CTI-104 is reliable and valid, and assesses a broader range of traumatic war-related events in a broader range of refugees than currently available instruments.

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