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Neuroimage. 2006 Nov 1;33(2):550-63. Epub 2006 Aug 21.

An extended simplified reference tissue model for the quantification of dynamic PET with amphetamine challenge.

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  • 1The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 601 N. Caroline St., JHOC room 3245, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA. yunzhou@jhmi.edu

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Equilibrium analysis to quantify dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) with bolus followed by continuous tracer infusion and acute amphetamine challenge assumes that all tissue kinetics attain steady states during pre- and post-challenge phases. Violations of this assumption may result in unreliable estimation of the amphetamine-induced percent change in the binding potential (DeltaBP%).

METHOD:

We derived an extended simplified reference tissue model (ESRTM) for modeling tracer kinetics in the pre- and post-challenge phases. Ninety-minute [11C]raclopride PET studies with bolus injection followed by continuous tracer infusion were performed on 18 monkeys and 2 baboons. Forty minutes after the bolus injection, a single acute intravenous amphetamine administration was given of 2.0 mg/kg to monkeys and of 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, and 1.5 mg/kg to baboons. Computer simulations further evaluated and characterized the ESRTM.

RESULTS:

In monkey studies, the DeltaBP% estimated by the ESRTM was 32+/-11, whereas, the DeltaBP% obtained using the equilibrium methods was 32% to 81% lower. In baboon studies, the DeltaBP% values estimated with the ESRTM showed a linear relationship between the DeltaBP% and the natural logarithm of amphetamine dose (R2=0.96), where the DeltaBP%=10.67Ln(dose)+33.79 (0.05<or=dose in mg/kg<or=1.5). At 1.5 mg/kg amphetamine, the DeltaBP% estimates from equilibrium methods were 18% to 40% lower than those estimated by the ESRTM. Results showed that the nonsteady state of tracer kinetics produced an underestimation of the DeltaBP% from the equilibrium analysis. The accuracy of the DeltaBP% estimates from the equilibrium analysis was significantly improved by the ESRTM. The DeltaBP% estimated by the ESRTM in the study was consistent with that from previous [11C] raclopride PET with amphetamine challenge.

CONCLUSION:

In conclusion, the ESRTM is a robust kinetic modeling approach and is proposed for the quantification of dynamic PET with acute amphetamine stimulation.

PMID:
16920365
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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