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Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006 Oct;1758(10):1557-79. Epub 2006 Jun 27.

Extra domains in secondary transport carriers and channel proteins.

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  • 1Division of Biological Sciences, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0116, USA.

Abstract

"Extra" domains in members of the families of secondary transport carrier and channel proteins provide secondary functions that expand, amplify or restrict the functional nature of these proteins. Domains in secondary carriers include TrkA and SPX domains in DASS family members, DedA domains in TRAP-T family members (both of the IT superfamily), Kazal-2 and PDZ domains in OAT family members (of the MF superfamily), USP, IIA(Fru) and TrkA domains in ABT family members (of the APC superfamily), ricin domains in OST family members, and TrkA domains in AAE family members. Some transporters contain highly hydrophilic domains consisting of multiple repeat units that can also be found in proteins of dissimilar function. Similarly, transmembrane alpha-helical channel-forming proteins contain unique, conserved, hydrophilic domains, most of which are not found in carriers. In some cases the functions of these domains are known. They may be ligand binding domains, phosphorylation domains, signal transduction domains, protein/protein interaction domains or complex carbohydrate-binding domains. These domains mediate regulation, subunit interactions, or subcellular targeting. Phylogenetic analyses show that while some of these domains are restricted to closely related proteins derived from specific organismal types, others are nearly ubiquitous within a particular family of transporters and occur in a tremendous diversity of organisms. The former probably became associated with the transporters late in the evolutionary process; the latter probably became associated with the carriers much earlier. These domains can be located at either end of the transporter or in a central region, depending on the domain and transporter family. These studies provide useful information about the evolution of extra domains in channels and secondary carriers and provide novel clues concerning function.

PMID:
16905115
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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