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Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2007 Feb;75(2):184-92. Epub 2006 Aug 8.

High prevalence of albuminuria in population-based patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes in the Shanghai downtown.

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  • 1Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, HuaShan Hospital, Institute of Endocrinology and Diabetology at Fudan University, No. 12 Wulumuqi Road, Shanghai 200040, China.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The prevalence of albuminuria and the risk factors associated with albuminuria were evaluated among the Chinese patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes aged over 30 in the Shanghai downtown. We also evaluated the variability of urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) among the three measurements and the relationship between diabetic retinopathy (DR) and albuminuria.

METHODS:

The 1039 Chinese patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes aged over 30 were investigated by randomized cluster sampling in the Shanghai downtown and 1018 patients were analyzed in this study. Body mass measurements including height, weight, waist circumference and hip circumference, resting blood pressure, fasting blood measures, urinary ACR and the digitally stored fundus images were investigated. The prevalence of albuminuria was calculated and the risk factors associated with albuminuria were evaluated by stepwise logistic regression. The concordance of urinary ACR was evaluated by observed agreement. The relationship between albuminuria and DR was also evaluated.

RESULTS:

(1) The mean age of all patients was 66.10+/-11.54 years and the duration of diabetes was 7.89+/-7.16 years. (2) The prevalence of albuminuria was 49.6% among the Chinese patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes aged over 30 in the Shanghai downtown, 41.4% with microalbuminuria and 8.2% with macroalbuminuria. (3) Microalbuminuria was significantly associated with systolic blood pressure, gender and waist circumference. Macroalbuminuria was significantly associated with systolic blood pressure and duration of diabetes. (4) Observed agreement among the three urinary ACR measurement for albuminuria staging was 73.3% (first versus second), 64.5% (first versus third) and 77.5% (second versus third). Observed agreement in the albuminuria staging between the single urinary ACR measurement and all three urinary ACR measurements was 85.8% (first versus all three), 87.6% (second versus all three) and 81.9% (third versus all three). (5) The percentage of DR in the macroalbuminuric group (59.2%) was significantly higher than that in the normalbuminuria group (16.1%) and microalbuminuria group (24.6%). (6) The macroalbuminuric patients with DR had significantly increased fasting blood glucose and HbA1c compared with the macroalbuminuric patients without DR.

CONCLUSION:

The prevalence of microalbuminuria observed in the Chinese patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes aged over 30 in the Shanghai downtown reached up to 41.4% though the observations in our study might be representative of the diabetic patients of the Shanghai downtown. We agreed that at least two of the three urinary collections were done in a 3- to 6-month period because of the day-to-day variability in albumin excretion. The percentage of DR among the patients with macroalbuminuria was 59.2%, and the macroalbuminuric patients with the significantly high plasma glucose and DR were prone to diagnose DN.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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