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Plant Physiol Biochem. 2006 May-Jun;44(5-6):369-79. Epub 2006 Jul 5.

Lipopolysaccharide-responsive phosphoproteins in Nicotiana tabacum cells.

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  • 1Department of Biochemistry, University of Johannesburg, Kingsway Campus, P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park, 2006 Johannesburg, South Africa.


Mounting evidence is merging to affirm the effectiveness of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) as biological control agents, inducers of innate immunity, and to stimulate/potentiate the development of defense responses in plants through protein phosphorylation-mediated signal perception/transduction responses. In vivo labeling of protein phosphorylation events during signal transduction indicated the rapid phosphorylation of several proteins. Substantial differences and de novo LPS-induced phosphorylation were also observed with two-dimensional analysis. In this study, qualitative and quantitative changes in phosphoproteins of Nicotiana tabacum suspension cells during elicitation by LPS from the Gram-negative bacteria, Burkholderia cepacia, were analyzed using two-dimensional electrophoresis in combination with a phosphoprotein-specific gel stain. Trypsin digested phosphoproteins were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) and nano-electrospray-ionization liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (nano-ESI-LC/MS/MS). A total of 27 phosphoproteins were identified from 23 excised gel spots. The identified phosphoproteins indicate that LPS(B.cep)-induced signal perception/transduction involves G-protein coupled receptor signaling, Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent signaling pathways, H(+)-ATPase regulation of intracellular pH, thioredoxin-mediated signaling and phosphorylation of 14-3-3 regulatory proteins. Other targets of LPS(B.cep)-responsive phosphorylation included NTP pool maintenance, heat shock proteins, protein biosynthesis and chaperones as well as cytoskeletal tubulin. The results add novel insights into the biochemical process of LPS perception and resulting signal transduction.

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