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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Aug 8;103(32):12115-20. Epub 2006 Jul 31.

Microbial diversity in the deep sea and the underexplored "rare biosphere".

Author information

  • 1Josephine Bay Paul Center, Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole, 7 MBL Street, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA. sogin@mbl.edu

Abstract

The evolution of marine microbes over billions of years predicts that the composition of microbial communities should be much greater than the published estimates of a few thousand distinct kinds of microbes per liter of seawater. By adopting a massively parallel tag sequencing strategy, we show that bacterial communities of deep water masses of the North Atlantic and diffuse flow hydrothermal vents are one to two orders of magnitude more complex than previously reported for any microbial environment. A relatively small number of different populations dominate all samples, but thousands of low-abundance populations account for most of the observed phylogenetic diversity. This "rare biosphere" is very ancient and may represent a nearly inexhaustible source of genomic innovation. Members of the rare biosphere are highly divergent from each other and, at different times in earth's history, may have had a profound impact on shaping planetary processes.

PMID:
16880384
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC1524930
Free PMC Article
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