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Vision Res. 2006 Oct;46(21):3537-48. Epub 2006 Aug 1.

The coordination of binocular eye movements: vertical and torsional alignment.

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  • 1University of California, 360 Minor Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-2020, USA.


Precise binocular alignment of the visual axes is of utmost importance for good vision. The fact that so few of us ever experience diplopia is evidence of how well the oculomotor system performs this function in the face of changes due to development, disease and injury. The capacity of the oculomotor system to adapt to visual stimuli that mimic alignment deficits has been extensively explored in laboratory experiments. While the present paper reviews many of those studies, the primary focus is on issues involved in maintaining good vertical and torsional alignment in everyday viewing situations where the parsing of muscle forces may vary for the same horizontal and vertical eye positions due to changes in horizontal vergence and head posture.

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