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Exp Cell Res. 2006 Aug 15;312(14):2694-9. Epub 2006 Jun 20.

Rad50S alleles of the Mre11 complex: questions answered and questions raised.

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  • 1Laboratory of Chromosome Biology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and Cornell University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, New York, NY10021, USA.

Abstract

We find that Rad50S mutations in yeast and mammals exhibit constitutive PIKK (PI3-kinase like kinase)-dependent signaling [T. Usui, H. Ogawa, J.H. Petrini, A DNA damage response pathway controlled by Tel1 and the Mre11 complex. Mol. Cell 7 (2001) 1255-1266.; M. Morales, J.W. Theunissen, C.F. Kim, R. Kitagawa, M.B. Kastan, J.H. Petrini, The Rad50S allele promotes ATM-dependent DNA damage responses and suppresses ATM deficiency: implications for the Mre11 complex as a DNA damage sensor. Genes Dev. 19 (2005) 3043-4354.]. The signaling depends on Mre11 complex functions, consistent with its role as a DNA damage sensor. Rad50S is distinct from hypomorphic mutations of Mre11 and Nbs1 in mammals [M. Morales, J.W. Theunissen, C.F. Kim, R. Kitagawa, M.B. Kastan, J.H. Petrini, The Rad50S allele promotes ATM-dependent DNA damage responses and suppresses ATM deficiency: implications for the Mre11 complex as a DNA damage sensor. Genes Dev. 19 (2005) 3043-3054.; J.P. Carney, R.S. Maser, H. Olivares, E.M. Davis, Le M. Beau, J.R. Yates, III, L. Hays, W.F. Morgan, J.H. Petrini, The hMre11/hRad50 protein complex and Nijmegen breakage syndrome: linkage of double-strand break repair to the cellular DNA damage response. Cell 93 (1998) 477-486.; G.S. Stewart, R.S. Maser, T. Stankovic, D.A. Bressan, M.I. Kaplan, N.G. Jaspers, A. Raams, P.J. Byrd, J.H. Petrini, A.M. Taylor, The DNA double-strand break repair gene hMRE11 is mutated in individuals with an ataxia-telangiectasia-like disorder. Cell 99 (1999) 577-587.; B.R. Williams, O.K. Mirzoeva, W.F. Morgan, J. Lin, W. Dunnick, J.H. Petrini, A murine model of nijmegen breakage syndrome. Curr. Biol. 12 (2002) 648-653.; J.W. Theunissen, M.I. Kaplan, P.A. Hunt, B.R. Williams, D.O. Ferguson, F.W. Alt, J.H. Petrini, Checkpoint failure and chromosomal instability without lymphomagenesis in Mre11(ATLD1/ATLD1) mice. Mol. Cell 12 (2003) 1511-1523.] and the Mre11 complex deficiency in yeast [T. Usui, H. Ogawa, J.H. Petrini, A DNA damage response pathway controlled by Tel1 and the Mre11 complex. Mol. Cell 7 (2001) 1255-1266.; D'D. Amours, S.P. Jackson, The yeast Xrs2 complex functions in S phase checkpoint regulation. Genes Dev. 15 (2001) 2238-49. ; M. Grenon, C. Gilbert, N.F. Lowndes, Checkpoint activation in response to double-strand breaks requires the Mre11/Rad50/Xrs2 complex. Nat. Cell Biol. 3 (2001) 844-847. ] where the signaling is compromised. Herein, we describe evidence for chronic signaling by Rad50S and discuss possible mechanisms.

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