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Schizophr Res. 2006 Sep;86(1-3):36-44. Epub 2006 Jul 12.

A lifestyle intervention for older schizophrenia patients with diabetes mellitus: a randomized controlled trial.

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  • 1University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.



We tested the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a lifestyle intervention for middle-aged and older patients with schizophrenia and type-2 diabetes mellitus, using a randomized pre-test, post-test control group design.


Individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder over the age of 40 were randomly assigned to 24-week Diabetes Awareness and Rehabilitation Training (DART; n=32) groups or Usual Care plus Information (UCI; n=32) comparison groups. Participants were recruited from board-and-care facilities and day treatment programs. Fifty-seven patients completed baseline and 6-month assessments consisting of an interview, measures of body mass index, blood pressure, fasting blood chemistry, and accelerometry. A mixed-model analysis of variance was used to analyze the data.


A significant group x time interaction was found for body weight, with patients in the DART group losing a mean of 5 lb and those in the UCI gaining a mean 6 lb. Significant group x time interactions were also found for triglycerides, diabetes knowledge, diabetes self-efficacy, and self-reported physical activity, but not for fasting plasma glucose or glycosylated hemoglobin.


Group-based lifestyle interventions are feasible and produce positive health changes in middle-aged and older patients with schizophrenia and diabetes mellitus.

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