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Cancer Causes Control. 2006 Sep;17(7):949-55.

Menstrual and reproductive factors in relation to risk of endometrial cancer in Chinese women.

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  • 1Program in Epidemiology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA.


Menstrual, reproductive and contraceptive factors have been associated with risk of endometrial cancer in populations where the incidence of this tumor is high. To investigate associations between these factors in a low-risk population with a low prevalence of hormone replacement therapy, we conducted a cohort study among 267,400 women employed in the textile industry in Shanghai, China. Menstrual, reproductive and other factors were ascertained at baseline in 1989-1991, and women were followed for incident endometrial cancer through 31 December 1998 (n = 206). Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Risk of endometrial cancer decreased with increasing age at menarche (p-trend = 0.004). Among menopausal women, risk increased with age at menopause and increasing years of menstruation. Compared to women with one live birth, risk was increased in relation to nulliparity (Hazard ratio = 3.95, 95% CI 1.43-10.86). Risk was decreased with increasing age at first live birth (p-trend = 0.03). There was a decreased risk associated with ever use of an intrauterine device (HR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.35-0.88) and use of oral contraceptives for > or =2 years (HR = 0.50, 95% CI 0.23-1.07). This prospective study confirms findings from previous case-control studies relating menstrual, reproductive, and contraceptive factors and endometrial carcinoma.

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