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J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2006 Sep;35(3):356-68.

Predictors of adolescent functioning in girls with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): the role of childhood ADHD, conduct problems, and peer status.

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  • 1Department of Psychiatry (MC 3077), University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.


Predictors of adolescent functioning were studied in an ethnically diverse sample of girls with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n = 140) and age- and ethnicity-matched comparison girls (n = 88) who participated in naturalistic summer programs during childhood. Over a 5-year follow-up (sample retention = 92%; age range = 11.3-18.2 years), conduct problems were predicted by hyperactivity-impulsivity (HI) symptoms and noncompliance (NC). Academic achievement was predicted only by inattention symptoms, whereas school suspensions and expulsions were predicted by inattention symptoms (ADHD sample only), NC, and negative peer status. Substance use was predicted by NC and HI symptoms. Internalizing problems were predicted by HI symptoms, NC, and covert antisocial behavior. Finally, initial peer status was the only significant predictor of later negative social preference.

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