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J Clin Gastroenterol. 2006 Jul;40(6):467-75.

Extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel diseases.

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  • 1Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Brown Medical School, Providence, RI 02912, USA.


Inflammatory bowel diseases are associated with extraintestinal manifestations involving almost every organ system in the body. They occur in approximately 20% to 40% of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. Immune-related and genetic mechanisms play an important role in the pathogenesis of these complications. Peripheral arthritis, erythema nodosum, and episcleritis respond to the treatment of the underlying intestinal inflammation, whereas axial arthropathy, pyoderma gangrenosum, and uveitis do not. Immunomodulator therapy, particularly with biologic agents has been shown to be effective in treating some of the extraintestinal manifestations. Early recognition and treatment are crucial in preventing major morbidity.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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