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J Immunol. 1991 Dec 1;147(11):3848-54.

IL-1 serves as a secondary signal for IL-9 expression.

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  • 1Institute for Immunology, Johannes Gutenberg Universit├Ąt, Mainz, Federal Republic of Germany.


IL-9 is produced in vitro by activated CD4+ T cell lines of the Th2 subtype and by naive CD4+ T cells. Here we show that T cell lines stimulated with Con A in the presence of accessory cells (AC) such as irradiated spleen cells or bone marrow-derived macrophages produced substantially more IL-9 than T cells stimulated with Con A alone. These data suggest that AC influence the production of IL-9 through accessory signals that result in an at least 10-fold increase of IL-9 secretion by the respective T cells. Addition of IL-1 to T cells activated by Con A, PHA, or anti-CD3 antibodies revealed that this monokine was responsible for the potentiation of IL-9 production. This finding was confirmed by applying anti-IL-1 antibodies. The production of other lymphokines, namely, IL-3, IL-4, and IL-6, by activated T cells was not or only marginally enhanced in the presence of AC or IL-1, thus indicating that the synthesis of IL-9 is regulated differently from that of other Th2-derived lymphokines. Furthermore, it was demonstrated by Northern blot analysis that IL-1 increases IL-9 expression at the pretranslational level. Because IL-1 alone failed to induce the production of IL-9 by T cells, this monokine acts as a costimulator in combination with a T cell receptor-mediated signal.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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