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J Am Chem Soc. 2006 Jul 12;128(27):8766-76.

Discrimination of hairpin polyamides with an alpha-substituted-gamma-aminobutyric acid as a 5'-TG-3' reader in DNA minor groove.

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  • 1Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan.


Pyrrole-imidazole (Py-Im) polyamides containing stereospecifically alpha-amino- or alpha-hydroxyl-substituted gamma-aminobutyric acid as a 5'-TG-3' recognition element were synthesized by machine-assisted Fmoc solid-phase synthesis. Their binding properties to predetermined DNA sequences containing a core binding site of 5'-TGCNCA-3'/3'-ACGN'GT-5' (N.N' = A.T, T.A, G.C, and C.G) were then systematically studied by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). SPR results revealed that the pairing of stereospecifically alpha-amino-/alpha-hydroxyl-substituted gamma-aminobutyric acids, (R or S)-alpha,gamma-diaminobutyric acid (gammaRN or gammaSN) and (R or S)-alpha-hydroxyl-gamma-aminobutyric acid (gammaRO or gammaSO), side-by-side with beta-alanine (beta) in such polyamides significantly influenced the DNA binding affinity and recognition specificity of hairpin polyamides in the DNA minor groove compared with beta/beta, beta/gamma, and gamma/beta pairings. More importantly, the polyamide Ac-Im-gammaSO-ImPy-gamma-ImPybetaPy-beta-Dp (beta/gammaSO) favorably binds to a hairpin DNA containing a core binding site of 5'-TGCNCA-3'/3'-ACGN'GT-5' (N.N' = A.T) with dissociation equilibrium constant (K(D)) of 1.9 x 10(-)(7) M over N.N' = T.A with K(D) = 3.7 x 10(-)(6) M, with a 19-fold specificity. By contrast, Ac-Im-gammaSN-ImPy-gamma-ImPybetaPy-beta-Dp (beta/gammaSN) binds to the above sequence with N.N' = A.T with K(D) = 8.7 x 10(-)(7) M over N.N' = T.A with K(D) = 8.4 x 10(-)(6) M, with a 9.6-fold specificity. The results also show that the stereochemistry of the alpha-substituent, as well as the alpha-substituent itself may greatly alter binding affinity and recognition selectivity of hairpin polyamides to different DNA sequences. Further, we carried out molecular modeling studies on the binding by an energy minimization method, suggesting that alpha-hydroxyl is very close to N3 of the 3'-terminal G to induce the formation of hydrogen bonding between hydroxyl and N3 in the recognition event of the polyamide Ac-Im-gammaSO-ImPy-gamma-ImPybetaPy-beta-Dp (beta/gammaSO) to 5'-TGCNCA-3'/3'-ACGN'GT-5' (N.N' = A.T). Therefore, SPR assays and molecular modeling studies collectively suggest that the (S)-alpha-hydroxyl-gamma-aminobutyric acid (gammaSO) may act as a 5'-TG-3' recognition unit.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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