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Int J Infect Dis. 2007 May;11(3):226-31. Epub 2006 Jul 11.

Bacteremia in adult patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in the northeast of Thailand.

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  • 1Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand 40002. piroon_m@hotmail.com

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Bacteremia is a frequent complication found in HIV-infected patients and is usually associated with a poor prognosis. This study was undertaken to describe the bacterial pathogens causing bacteremia in adult Thai HIV-infected patients, and hence to give guidance in the choice of empirical antimicrobials.

METHODS:

Blood culture results at Srinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen during the period January 1996 to December 2001 were retrospectively reviewed.

RESULTS:

In HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected patients, 172 and 4082 episodes of bacteremia occurred, respectively. In HIV-infected patients, community-acquired and nosocomial bacteremia were found in 78.5% and 21.5%, respectively and most were monomicrobial. Gram-negative bacteria were the main pathogens isolated in both groups of bacteremia. Escherichia coli and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were more common pathogens causing nosocomial bacteremia in HIV-infected patients, whereas Acinetobacter spp were more common in HIV-uninfected patients. Salmonella spp, especially Salmonella groups D and B, were the most common (62.2%) pathogen in community-acquired bacteremia in HIV-infected patients whereas Escherichia coli was the most common in HIV-uninfected patients. Only a few episodes of community-acquired bacteremia in HIV-infected patients had identified sources. Co-trimoxazole resistance was common in community-acquired bacteremia caused by Gram-negative bacilli in HIV-infected patients, with Salmonella group B being more resistant to co-trimoxazole than Salmonella group D (statistically significant, p<0.001). However, resistance rates to ceftriaxone and ofloxacin were low.

CONCLUSIONS:

Bacteremia in adult HIV-infected patients was usually caused by Gram-negative bacilli in both community-acquired and nosocomial settings. Salmonella spp was the most common organism identified, especially Salmonella group B and D. Ceftriaxone or fluoroquinolones such as ofloxacin or ciprofloxacin should be used as the initial empiric therapy for HIV-infected patients with suspected bacteremia.

PMID:
16815065
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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