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Kidney Int Suppl. 2006 Jul;(102):S16-21.

Influence of parathyroid mass on the regulation of PTH secretion.

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  • 1Nephrological Department B, The Copenhagen County Hospital in Herlev, Denmark.

Abstract

In advanced uremia, parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels should be controlled at a moderately elevated level in order to promote normal bone turnover. As such, a certain degree of parathyroid gland (PG) hyperplasia has to be accepted. No convincing evidence of apoptosis or of involution of PG hyperplasia exists. However, even considerable parathyroid hyperplasia can be controlled when the functional demand for increased PTH levels is abolished. When 20 isogenic PG were implanted into one parathyroidectomized (PTX) rat normalization of Ca(2+) and PTH levels and normal suppressibility of PTH secretion by high Ca(2+) was obtained. Similarly, normal levels of Ca(2+) and PTH and suppressibility of PTH secretion were obtained when Eight isogenic PG from uremic rats were implanted into normal rats or when long-term uremia and severe secondary hyperparathyroidism (sec. HPT) was reversed by an isogenic kidney transplantation. Normalization of PTH levels after experimental kidney transplantation took place despite a persistent decrease of vitamin D receptor (VDR) mRNA and calcium sensing receptor (CaR) mRNA in PG. Thus, in experimental models PTH levels are determined by the functional demand and not by parathyroid mass, per se. When non-suppressible sec. HPT is present in patients referred to PTX, nodular hyperplasia with differences in gene expression between different nodules has been observed in most cases. An altered expression of some autocrine/paracrine factors has been demonstrated in the nodules. Enhanced expression of PTH-related peptide (PTHrP) has been demonstrated in PG from patients with severe secondary HPT. PTHrP has been shown to stimulate PTH secretion in vivo and in vitro. PTH/PTHrP receptor was demonstrated in the parathyroids. The low Ca(2+) stimulated PTH secretion was enhanced by 300% by PTHrP 1-40. The altered quality of the parathyroid mass and not only the increased parathyroid mass, per se, might be responsible for non-controllable hyperparathyroidism in uremia and after kidney transplantation.

PMID:
16810305
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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