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N Engl J Med. 2006 Jun 29;354(26):2773-82.

N-acetylcysteine and contrast-induced nephropathy in primary angioplasty.

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  • 1Centro Cardiologico Monzino, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Institute of Cardiology, University of Milan, Milan, Italy. giancarlo.marenzi@ccfm.it

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing primary angioplasty are at high risk for contrast-medium-induced nephropathy because of hemodynamic instability, the need for a high volume of contrast medium, and the lack of effective prophylaxis. We investigated the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine for the prevention of contrast-medium-induced nephropathy in patients undergoing primary angioplasty.

METHODS:

We randomly assigned 354 consecutive patients undergoing primary angioplasty to one of three groups: 116 patients were assigned to a standard dose of N-acetylcysteine (a 600-mg intravenous bolus before primary angioplasty and 600 mg orally twice daily for the 48 hours after angioplasty), 119 patients to a double dose of N-acetylcysteine (a 1200-mg intravenous bolus and 1200 mg orally twice daily for the 48 hours after intervention), and 119 patients to placebo.

RESULTS:

The serum creatinine concentration increased 25 percent or more from baseline after primary angioplasty in 39 of the control patients (33 percent), 17 of the patients receiving standard-dose N-acetylcysteine (15 percent), and 10 patients receiving high-dose N-acetylcysteine (8 percent, P<0.001). Overall in-hospital mortality was higher in patients with contrast-medium-induced nephropathy than in those without such nephropathy (26 percent vs. 1 percent, P<0.001). Thirteen patients (11 percent) in the control group died, as did five (4 percent) in the standard-dose N-acetylcysteine group and three (3 percent) in the high-dose N-acetylcysteine group (P=0.02). The rate for the composite end point of death, acute renal failure requiring temporary renal-replacement therapy, or the need for mechanical ventilation was 21 (18 percent), 8 (7 percent), and 6 (5 percent) in the three groups, respectively (P=0.002).

CONCLUSIONS:

Intravenous and oral N-acetylcysteine may prevent contrast-medium-induced nephropathy with a dose-dependent effect in patients treated with primary angioplasty and may improve hospital outcome. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00237614[ClinicalTrials.gov]).

Copyright 2006 Massachusetts Medical Society.

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PMID:
16807414
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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