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Schizophr Res. 2006 Sep;86(1-3):118-22. Epub 2006 Jun 27.

Sex differences in digit ratio (2D:4D) are disrupted in adolescents with schizotypal personality disorder: altered prenatal gonadal hormone levels as a risk factor.

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  • 1Psychology Department at Brooklyn College-City University of New York, Brooklyn, NY 11210, USA.


The 2nd to 4th finger digit ratio (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic feature determined during gestation indexing prenatal androgen/estrogen levels. More 'feminized' 2D:4D phenotype has been demonstrated in schizophrenia versus same-sex controls. This study examined 2D:4D in adolescents with schizotypal personality disorder (SPD). Among normal controls, right 2D:4D was significantly greater (more feminized) in females than males. We replicated laterality effects; significant sex differences only on right. There were no significant sex differences among SPDs. Diagnostic group differences were restricted to White/Caucasian males with greater right 2D:4D in SPDs. Findings suggest disruptions in prenatal gonadal hormones in vulnerability for schizophrenia.

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