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Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2007 Feb;59(3):285-93. Epub 2006 Jun 20.

Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of S-1 administered for 14 days in a 21-day cycle in patients with advanced upper gastrointestinal cancer.

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  • 1Massachusetts General Hospital, 100 Blossom Street, Cox 640, Boston, MA 02114, USA. azhu@partners.org



S-1 is a novel oral fluoropyrimidine that combines tegafur with CDHP and oxonic acid. To decrease the incidence of late onset, severe diarrhea observed in a previous study, a phase I study was conducted to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of S-1 utilizing a 14-day schedule, repeated every 21 days, in patients with chemotherapy-refractory upper gastrointestinal malignancies.


S-1 was administered orally, twice-daily, at an initial dose level of 30 mg/m2/dose; doses were escalated by 5 mg/m2 at each level. A minimum of three patients were enrolled at each dose level. S-1 toxicity, antitumor activity, and pharmacokinetics were assessed. The MTD was based on the dose limiting toxicity (DLT) during the first treatment cycle.


At 30 mg/m2 no DLT was observed in the first three evaluable patients. Two of the first three patients at the 35 mg/m2 dose level developed DLTs (grade 3 rash and dehydration). An additional nine patients were subsequently treated at 30 mg/m2 without DLT and this dose was established as the MTD. Common toxicities at 30 mg/m2 included diarrhea, nausea, skin rash, anorexia, and fatigue. No grade 4 toxicities were observed. One partial response was seen in a patient with gemcitabine-refractory pancreatic adenocarcinoma and ten patients with pancreatic, gastric, or gallbladder carcinomas achieved stable disease as their best response to therapy. The AUC(0-8) of 5-FU at the 30 and 35 mg/m2 dose levels were 875 +/- 212 and 894 +/- 151 h ng/ml, respectively.


In a 14-day dosing schedule, the MTD of S-1 was 30 mg/m2 and preliminary evidence of antitumor activity was seen in a North American population with refractory upper gastrointestinal malignancies.

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