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J Nutr. 2006 Jul;136(7):1814-20.

Salt dual-fortified with iodine and micronized ground ferric pyrophosphate affects iron status but not hemoglobin in children in Cote d'Ivoire.

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  • 1Programme National de Nutrition, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.


Deficiencies of iron and iodine are common in West Africa, and salt is one of very few food vehicles available for fortification. Salt dual-fortified with iodine and micronized ground ferric pyrophosphate (FePP) was tested for its efficacy in rural, tropical Côte d'Ivoire. First, salt and iron intakes, and iron bioavailability were estimated using 3-d weighed food records in 24 households. Local iodized salt was then fortified with 3 mg Fe/g salt as ground FePP (mean particle size = 2.5 mum), and stability, sensory and acceptability trials were done. The dual fortified salt (DFS) was distributed to households and its efficacy compared with that of iodized salt (IS) in a 6-mo, double-blind trial in 5- to 15-y-old iron-deficient children (n = 123). All children were dewormed at baseline. After 6 mo, serum ferritin (SF) and transferrin receptor (TfR) concentrations as well as body iron stores improved significantly in the DFS group but not in the IS GROUP (P < 0.05). Body iron increased from 4.6 +/- 2.7 to 5.9 +/- 2.7 mg/kg (mean +/- SD) in the DFS group; concentrations before and after treatment in the IS group were 5.5 +/- 2.9 and 5.6 +/- 3.1 mg/kg, respectively. The hemoglobin concentration and the prevalence of anemia did not change in either group. The prevalences of malaria, soil-transmitted helminths, and riboflavin deficiency were 55, 14, and 66%, respectively. In tropical West Africa, low-grade salt fortified with micronized ground FePP increased body iron stores but not hemoglobin in children. Iron utilization may have been impaired by the high prevalence of malaria and concurrent nutrient deficiencies.

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