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J Vasc Surg. 2006 Jun;43(6):1081-9; discussion 1089.

Complex thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms: endovascular exclusion with visceral revascularization.

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  • 1Regional Vascular Unit, St Mary's Hospital, Praed Street, London, United Kingdom.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

We review our ongoing experience with a transabdominal stent repair of complex thoracoabdominal aneurysms (Crawford type I, II, and III) with surgical revascularization of visceral and renal arteries.

METHODS:

A retrospective review was conducted of prospectively collected data from 29 consecutive patients who underwent an attempted visceral hybrid procedure between January 2002 and April 2005. Twenty-two patients were elective, four were urgent (symptomatic), and three were emergent (true rupture). The median patient age was 74 years (range, 37 to 81 years). The aneurysms were Crawford type I in 3, type II in 18, type III in 7, and type IV in 1. Previous aortic surgery had been performed in 13 (45%) of 29 and included aortic valve and root replacement in 3, TAA repair in 1, type I repair in 1), type IV repair in 3, type B dissection in 2, infrarenal aneurysm in 5, and right common iliac aneurysm in 1. Severe preoperative comorbidity was present in 23 (80%) of 29: chronic renal impairment in 5, severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 6, myocardial disease in 11 at New York Heart Association grade II (6) and grade III (5), and Marfan's syndrome in 6. Twenty-six patients (90%) had a completed procedure. In two patients, myocardial instability prevented completion of the procedure despite extensive preoperative cardiac assessment, and in one, poor flow in the true lumen of a chronic type B dissection prevented anastomosis of the revascularization grafts. Exclusion of the full thoracoabdominal aorta was achieved in all 26 completed procedures and extended to include the iliac arteries in four, with revascularization of coeliac in 26, superior mesenteric artery in 26, left renal artery in 21, and right renal artery in 21).

RESULTS:

There was no paraplegia < or =30 days or during inpatient admission, and elective and urgent mortality was 13% (3/23). All of the patients with ruptured thoracoabdominal aneurysms died < or =30 days. Major complications included prolonged respiratory support (>5 days) in 9, inotropic support in 4, renal impairment requiring temporary support in 2 and not requiring support in 2, prolonged ileus in 2, resolved left hemispheric stroke in 1, and resection of an ischemic left colon in 1. Median blood loss was 3.9 liters (range, 1.2 to 13 liters). The median ischemia time was 15 minutes (range, 13 to 27 minutes) for the superior mesenteric and coeliac arteries and 15 minutes for the renal arteries (range, 13 to 21 minutes). The median hospital stay was 27 days (range, 16 to 84 days). Follow-up was a median of 8 months (range, 2 to 31 months), with 92 of 94 grafts patent. Six patients were found to have a type I endoleak. In four, this was a proximal leak, and stent extension in three reduced, but did not cure, the endoleak. One patient with a distal type I endoleak was successfully treated by embolization. Four type II endoleaks resolved without intervention, and one was treated by occlusion coiling of the origin of the left subclavian artery. A single late type III endoleak was found.

CONCLUSION:

Early results of visceral hybrid stent-grafts for types I, II, and III thoracoabdominal aneurysms are encouraging, with no paraplegia in this particularly high-risk group of patients. These results have encouraged us to perform the new procedure, in preference to open surgery, in Crawford type I, II, and III thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms.

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