Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Adv Parasitol. 2006;61:167-221.

Human African trypanosomiasis: Epidemiology and control.

Author information

  • 1Centre for Infectious Diseases, Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Roslin, Midlothian, EH25 9RG, UK.


Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), or sleeping sickness, describes not one but two discrete diseases: that caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and that caused by T. b. gambiense. The Gambian form is currently a major public health problem over vast areas of central and western Africa, while the zoonotic, Rhodesian form continues to present a serious health risk in eastern and southern Africa. The two parasites cause distinct clinical manifestations, and there are significant differences in the epidemiology of the diseases caused. We discuss the differences between the diseases caused by the two parasites, with an emphasis on disease burden, reservoir hosts, transmission, diagnosis, treatment and control. We analyse how these differences impacted on historical disease control trends and how they can inform contemporary treatment and control options. We consider the optimal ways in which to devise HAT control policies in light of the differing biology and epidemiology of the parasites, and emphasise, in particular, the wider aspects of control policy, outlining the responsibilities of individuals, governments and international organisations in control programmes.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk