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Annu Rev Phytopathol. 2006;44:417-45.

Phenazine compounds in fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. biosynthesis and regulation.

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  • 1Department of Plant Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-6430, USA.


The phenazines include upward of 50 pigmented, heterocyclic nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites synthesized by some strains of fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. and a few other bacterial genera. The antibiotic properties of these compounds have been known for over 150 years, but advances within the past two decades have provided significant new insights into the genetics, biochemistry, and regulation of phenazine synthesis, as well as the mode of action and functional roles of these compounds in the environment. This new knowledge reveals conservation of biosynthetic enzymes across genera but raises questions about conserved biosynthetic mechanisms, and sets the stage for improving the performance of phenazine producers used as biological control agents for soilborne plant pathogens.

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