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Bioresour Technol. 2007 Mar;98(4):874-80. Epub 2006 May 23.

Physico-chemical method for ammonia removal from synthetic wastewater using limestone and GAC in batch and column studies.

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  • 1School of Civil Engineering, University of Science Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang, Malaysia.


The purpose of the present study was to examine the removal of ammoniacal nitrogen (NH4-N) from synthetic wastewater using limestone (LS) and granular activated carbon (GAC) mixture as low cost adsorbent. In batch study, optimum shaking and settling times were 150 and 120 min, respectively. The LS-GAC mixture ratio of 25:15 removed about 58% NH4-N. The smaller particle size of medium yielded higher adsorption capacity. The equilibrium adsorption data followed the Freundlich isotherm (R2 > 0.98) but it showed weak bond. Adsorption kinetics were well described by the pseudo second-order rate model (R2 > 0.93). The upflow column showed that higher flow rate and initial concentration resulted in shorter column saturation time. The study showed that the usage of GAC could be reduced by combining GAC with LS for the removal of NH4-N from wastewater; thus reducing the cost of treatment.

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