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Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2006 Jun;64(6):603-10.

Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in female reproduction: is measurement of circulating AMH a useful tool?

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  • 1Mother-Infant Department, Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.


Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is a dimeric glycoprotein, a member of the transforming growth factor (TGF) superfamily. It is produced exclusively in the gonads and is involved in the regulation of follicular growth and development. In the ovary AMH is produced by the granulosa cells of early developing follicles and seems to be able to inhibit the initiation of primordial follicle growth and FSH-induced follicle growth. As AMH is largely expressed throughout folliculogenesis, from the primary follicular stage towards the antral stage, serum levels of AMH may represent both the quantity and quality of the ovarian follicle pool. Compared to other ovarian tests, AMH seems to be the best marker reflecting the decline of reproductive age. AMH measurement could be useful in the prediction of the menopausal transition. It could also be used to predict poor ovarian response and possibly the prognosis of in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. AMH has been shown to be a good surrogate marker for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Finally, its use as a marker for granulosa cell tumours has been proposed. A clearer understanding of its role in ovarian physiology may help clinicians to find a role for AMH measurement in the field of reproductive medicine.

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