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Environ Sci Technol. 2006 Apr 15;40(8):2511-6.

Deriving site-specific 2,2-bis(chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene quality criteria of water and sediment for protection of common tern populations in Bohai Bay, North China.

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  • 1College of Environmental Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.


In this paper we first present a method of deriving site-specific water and sediment quality criteria of chemicals for protecting wildlife populations. The method has two steps: (1) identification of the threshold concentration in specific tissue corresponding to a population benchmark response and (2) extrapolating quality criteria on the basis of the bioaccumulation in tissue from the water or sediment (e.g., the bioaccumulation factor (BAF) and biota/ sediment accumulation factor (BSAF)). The method was applied to derive 2,2-bis(chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) quality criteria of water and sediment of Bohai Bay, China, for common tern populations. The benchmark concentration in eggs of the common tern was determined to be 663 ng/g wet weight from the relationship curve between concentration (biotic burden in eggs) and the intrinsic rate of population increase (r) calculated by an age-structured matrix approach. The p,p'-DDE concentrations (mean 58.79 and ranging from 13.14 to 326.60 ng/g wet weight) measured in common tern eggs (n = 35), collected from the Beidagang wetland on the coast of Bohai Bay in China, and those in surface water or sediment from literature values were combined to estimate the probability distribution of BAF and BSAF using the Monte Carlo method. Finally, the marine water and sediment quality criteria of p,p'-DDE in Bohai Bay were estimated to be 4 ng/L and 1.9 ng/g dry weight, respectively.

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