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J Biol Inorg Chem. 2006 Jun;11(4):514-26. Epub 2006 Apr 21.

Perturbations of the T1 copper site in the CotA laccase from Bacillus subtilis: structural, biochemical, enzymatic and stability studies.

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  • 1Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Av. da República, 2781-901, Oeiras, Portugal.


Site-directed mutagenesis has been used to replace Met502 in CotA laccase by the residues leucine and phenylalanine. X-ray structural comparison of M502L and M502F mutants with the wild-type CotA shows that the geometry of the T1 copper site is maintained as well as the overall fold of the proteins. The replacement of the weak so-called axial ligand of the T1 site leads to an increase in the redox potential by approximately 100 mV relative to that of the wild-type enzyme (E0 =455 mV). However the M502L mutant exhibits a twofold to fourfold decrease in the kcat values for the all substrates tested and the catalytic activity in M502F is even more severely compromised; 10% activity and 0.15-0.05% for the non-phenolic substrates and for the phenolic substrates tested when compared with the wild-type enzyme. T1 copper depletion is a key event in the inactivation and thus it is a determinant of the thermodynamic stability of wild-type and mutant proteins. Whilst the unfolding of the tertiary structure in the wild-type enzyme is a two-state process displaying a midpoint at a guanidinium hydrochloride concentration of 4.6 M and a free-energy exchange in water of 10 kcal/mol, the unfolding for both mutant enzymes is clearly not a two-state process. At 1.9 M guanidinium hydrochloride, half of the molecules are in an intermediate conformation, only slightly less stable than the native state (approximately 1.4 kcal/mol). The T1 copper centre clearly plays a key role, from the structural, catalytic and stability viewpoints, in the regulation of CotA laccase activity.

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