Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
DNA Repair (Amst). 2006 Jun 10;5(6):731-40. Epub 2006 May 5.

gamma-H2AX formation in response to interstrand crosslinks requires XPF in human cells.

Author information

  • 1Department of Dermatology, University of California, San Francisco, USA.


To further define the molecular mechanisms involved in processing interstrand crosslinks, we monitored the formation of phosphorylated histone H2AX (gamma-H2AX), which is generated in chromatin near double strand break sites, following DNA damage in normal and repair-deficient human cells. Following treatment with a psoralen derivative and ultraviolet A radiation doses that produce significant numbers of crosslinks, gamma-H2AX levels in nucleotide excision repair-deficient XP-A fibroblasts (XP12RO-SV) increased to levels that were twice those observed in normal control GM637 fibroblasts. A partial XPA revertant cell line (XP129) that is proficient in crosslink removal, exhibited reduced gamma-H2AX levels that were intermediate between those of GM637 and XP-A cells. XP-F fibroblasts (XP2YO-SV and XP3YO) that are also repair-deficient exhibited gamma-H2AX levels below even control fibroblasts following treatment with psoralen and ultraviolet A radiation. Similarly, another crosslinking agent, mitomycin C, did not induce gamma-H2AX in XP-F cells, although it did induce equivalent levels of gamma-H2AX in XPA and control GM637 cells. Ectopic expression of XPF in XP-F fibroblasts restored gamma-H2AX induction following treatment with crosslinking agents. Angelicin, a furocoumarin which forms only monoadducts and not crosslinks following ultraviolet A radiation, as well as ultraviolet C radiation, resulted only in weak induction of gamma-H2AX in all cells, suggesting that the double strand breaks observed with psoralen and ultraviolet A treatment result preferentially following crosslink formation. These results indicate that XPF is required to form gamma-H2AX and likely double strand breaks in response to interstrand crosslinks in human cells. Furthermore, XPA may be important to allow psoralen interstrand crosslinks to be processed without forming a double strand break intermediate.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk